Phnom Penh: The percentage of Cambodians moving recently has decreased compared to 10 years ago, but there is a positive trend. One thing to note is that most of the migration from rural to urban areas is what Social Development Watch sees as a trend due to urbanization. There is development as rural agriculture declines.
According to the 2019 census, which was published in January, most migrants are now moving from rural areas. Cities accounted for 34 percent and city-to-city migration came in second with 30 percent. The rural-to-rural relocation rate was 29 percent, down from nearly 51 percent in 2008. .
Recent migration has declined, with just over 20 percent of the population being migrants and nearly 80 percent not. No change of residence during the census interview. In 2008, the number of migrants was more than 3.55 million. That number dropped to 3.31 million in 2019. According to the census results.
"On the other hand, the current emerging migration movement is between provinces," he said. However, the previous two censuses showed that in 2008 and 1998 the most prominent migration movements were in The province conducts interviews or is a movement within the province. ”
The results of the census conclude that the trend of migration from one province to another may be due to the process of urban development or Strong development of urban urbanization. The main reason for the migration mentioned by the people in the three censuses was the relocation of families. Other reasons for the high numbers among men are relocation, job search and marriage.
Most people migrate between the ages of 20 and 39. Nearly 90 percent of the migrants are in the 15-64 age group.
"Migrants have similar economic activities to the general population," the census results show. This is important because in the case of Cambodia, there does not seem to be any special economic activity that attracts migrants yet.
"The whole economy seems to be demanding labor, especially in urban areas."
Sok Kosal, deputy director general of the National Institute of Statistics, told the Post that the drop in migration was due to the lack of work. Return home to the place of birth as in the post-war era. Most of the migrants are young people, especially those born after 1979 and 1980.
"In terms of policy, moving to the city will definitely have an impact, and the first is the impact on livelihoods," he said. "Everyday life, like travel, is congested and makes city housing prices soar due to high demand." However, he noted that the census did not study in detail the impact of migration.
Meas Ny, Social Development Monitor, believes that at least 70 percent of farmers now have less than 1 hectare of land to grow crops. This makes it impossible for one family to be in one place. This causes migration, and this activity has become a normal activity for family members to survive.
He said that in the past, he acknowledged that migration from one country to another because at that time, agricultural crops were still able for farmers to survive. And farmers can move from place to place where there is a demand for labor in agriculture. But now the agricultural sector seems to be declining due to low prices of agricultural products in the market and large farms are often occupied by a small number of rich people. .
He said: "In Phnom Penh and some provinces as well, early in the morning, all the ports are congested, which is a sign that people In the countryside, people are starting to rush to the city because of the development in the city and the countryside does not exist. The government's focus on agriculture seems to be too small to balance urban and rural development. . "This is a lesson for the government to reconsider."
"Buildings that are tall, both built and not built, are all signs of absorption," he said. "Tens of thousands of workers are leaving the countryside."